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Graphic Economics

A collection of graphic representations of data by CEPR researchers on important economic issues.

Employment to Population Ratio, July 2009-2010 Print
August 6, 2010

For the second consecutive month, the economy created virtually no jobs, net of temporary Census jobs. The Labor Department reported that the economy lost 131,000 jobs in July, 12,000 less than the 143,000 drop in the number of temporary Census workers. The June numbers were revised down by 100,000 to show a gain of only 4,000 non-Census jobs.

The job loss corresponds to a decline in labor force participation. While the unemployment rate has edged down by 0.2 percentage points to 9.5 percent since May, this is attributable to people who gave up looking for work and left the labor force. The employment to population ratio fell by 0.1 percentage points to 58.4 percent, only slightly above the 58.2 percent low in December. The drop is entirely due to a falloff in employment among women. Their EPOP fell by 0.2 percentage points in July, while the EPOP for men edged up by 0.1 percentage points. The EPOP for men now stands 0.6 percentage points above the low hit last December, while it is only 0.1 percentage points higher for women.


Read the entire Jobs Byte.
Projected Annual Wages, 2010-2085 Print
August 5, 2010

The Social Security trustees painted a considerably more dismal picture of the near-term economic situation in the 2010 trustees report than in their 2009 report. At that point, they did not fully appreciate the severity of the economic downturn. The 2009 report projected that the unemployment rate would average 8.2 percent for 2009 and 8.8 percent for the current year. It projected that the unemployment rate would fall below 6.0 percent by 2014. The actual unemployment rate for 2009 was 9.3 percent. The new report projects that the unemployment rate in 2010 will average 10.0 percent and that unemployment will not fall below 6.0 percent until 2016.

The new report is also markedly more pessimistic in its near-term wage growth assumptions. The 2009 report assumed a real wage differential of 1.8 percent in 2009, 2010, and 2011. (The real wage differential is a calculation for average annual wages, so it has both an hours and wage component.) The new report revised downward the previously reported decline of 1.0 percent in 2008 to a sharper 2.1 percent fall in real wages. It shows real wages unchanged for 2009, but starting to catch up with a 3.1 percent rise in 2010, a 2.2 percent increase in 2011, and a 2.4 percent rise in 2012.


Read the entire Social Security Byte.
Change in Unemployment Rate in Countries With and Without Work-sharing Print
May 6, 2010


Data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development show how work-sharing has kept the unemployment rate in participating countries, such as Germany, low even though some of those countries have a seen a sharper decline in GDP compared with the United States.

Update: (February 15, 2011) Graph was updated to reflect changes to countries listed under work-sharing and non-work-sharing.

How Many of the 46.3 Million Uninsured are Immigrants? Print
April 26, 2010, by Hye Jin Rho and John Schmitt


The most recent available data show that 46.3 million people had no health insurance in 2008. More than 4 out of 5 (83%) of the uninsured are adults between 18 and 64 (38.3 million in 2008). Children are the next largest group of the uninsured (almost 16% or 7.3 million). Thanks primarily to Medicare, only about 1% of the uninsured are 65 or older (0.6 million). Almost three-quarters (73% or 34.0 million) of the uninsured were born in the United States. Of the 12.3 million immigrants without health insurance, more than half (6.3 million) are working, and about 900,000 are children.

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Change in Real Hourly Earnings, Jan 2009- Mar 2010 Print
April 14, 2010

The latest CPI data shows that the real hourly wages of production workers fell at a 2 percent annualized rate in March. More on this data on the Consumer Price Index and what it means for the economy in CEPR's April Prices Byte.

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